The Municipality of Manukan is strategically located on the southern part of the Province of Zamboanga del Norte, Philippines archipelago and easily accessible with an approximately 38-kilometer distance from the City of Dipolog.  Specifically, it is situated between 7º20' and 7º31' North Latitude and between 123º03' and 123º12' East Longitude.  It is bounded on the north by the Sulu Sea; on the east and southeast, by the Municipality of Pres. Manuel A. Roxas; and on the west and southwest, by the Municipality of Jose Dalman. 


The recorded land area of the locality is 25,291.57 hectares and distributed here in below to its component barangays, to wit:

                 Dipane    793.22 12.0
                 Disakan    958.67   6.0
                 Don Jose Aguirre    599.01   7.0
                 East Poblacion    518.90   1.0
                 Gupot    679.72 10.0
                 Libuton    945.24   5.0
                 Linay    549.36   6.0
                 Lingatongan    492.54 14.0
                 Lupasang    395.02 18.0
                 Mate 2,993.91   8.0
                 Meses      485.73 17.0
                 Palaranan    401.82   3.5
                 Pangandao 4,453.34 22.0
                 Patagan 1,976.21 12.2
                 Poblacion    412.02 0
                 Punta Blanca    725.57    4.0
                 Saluyong    772.37 16.0
                 San Antonio    396.45 11.0
                 Serongan 2,983.45 15.0 
                 Suisayan    526.60 14.0
                 Upper Disakan 2,797.67   9.0
                 Villaramos    434.75  9.0


Majority of the barangays are situated on rolling and hilly areas  and classified as generally craggy and rough with slopes from less than 10º to almost 70º except those along the coast.  It is traversed by rivers and creeks which overflows during wet seasons.  The barangays and "sitios" which are mostly affected by these occurrences are parts of Disakan, Linay, Lingatongan, Don Jose Aguirre, Lupasang, Saluyong and San Antonio.  As a coastal community, it has an approximately total shoreline of 18 kilometers and the shallow waters are pullulated with "bangus" and "locon" fry.


Manukan has been classified as belonging to Type 4 with no remarkable dry and no very pronounced rainy seasons.  There is no single month which may be considered as dry, however, February is considered as the driest and November as the wettest months.

The winds are generally light from South to West from June to October; and from the Northeast from November to May.  It enjoys a fairly warm temperature throughout the year with a mean annual temperature around 27.4ºC and a mean range of 14ºC.  Based on a 12-year record, January is the coldest month with an average temperature of 26.7ºC; while April is the warmest with a computed average of 28.1ºC.

Due to very short dry season, the relative humidity is comparatively high and uniform.  Average values in March and April  are remarkably at 80% and 70%, respectively.  The mean averages for the remaining months ranges from 81% to 85% with the highest values occurring during the wettest periods.  Tropical cyclones are infrequently being experienced in the area.  From 1949, only 4 cyclones passed within 75 miles of the area, and these were only depressions. 


Per record from the Soil Division of the Department of Agriculture, the area has 8 basic soil types which are the Faraon Clay, Isabela Clay, Guingua Clay, Mandawe Clay, Dohinob Clay, San Miguel Sandy Loam, Paete Clay and Undifferentiated Mountain Soil.

On the other hand, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) Office in Zamboanga City confirmed that Manukan is endowed with rich mineral deposits as follows:

1. Dohinob Limestone - It has an unknown extent which can be found in the banks   of Dohinob River.  This occurs as patches in sandstone and siltstone and characteristically corral and dense with white to buff colors.


2. Marble Deposit - The marbleized limestone deposit is situated in Disakan and covers an area of 810,000 square meters and average thickness of 20 meters.  It is well-exposed and is compact, massive and hard with a few joints.  It is partly metamorphosed into marble with an estimated reserve of 4,000,000 cubic meters after deducting 50% for breakage and etc.


3. Copper


4. Silver

Other mineral deposits believed to be found in the area are iron, gold, white clay and black sand.  However, extents of deposits are still undetermined including copper and silver.


NSO Census in 2000 recorded a total population of 31,855 with approximately 50.54% males and 49.46% females.  In the same census it has a total of 6,010 households with an average of 5-member household size and average family income of PhP 1000.00 per month.  Despite the introduction of family planning methods, these figures are projected to escalate due to the introduction of developmental projects as compared to its neighboring towns.  Its increasing population trend accounts for the high poverty incidence which is pegged at 71.78%.  Labor force potential is at 51.35%.


Many of its inhabitants are primarily engaged in farming and fishing.  Others rely on small-scale and cottage industries such as candle-making, soap-making, dressmaking, pottery, stonecraft, hollow block making, furniture, rattan and bamboo crafts, fish and meat processing, etc.  Still others are on freelance undertakings and skilled works.


Through the initiative of the 3-term Mayor Eugene Caballero, it has established the Barangay Road Network which interconnects all component-barangays to the mainstream of socio-economic activities.  Around 181 kilometers of roads were piloted and upgraded which was made possible with the procurement of heavy and light vehicles to ensure its realization at least cost as compared to renting of the same.  However, this project still needs constant rehabilitation and upgrading/concreting/gravelling works.

As to communication facilities, it has available postal and telegraphic services, radio transceivers, cellular phones and, lately, a cable television system was installed.  We hope that residential telephone units will also be introduced in the area.  The DOTC has already started the “Telepono Sa Barangay” Project which will also cater to both domestic and international calls of our people at a cheaper rate. 


       Electric power is commercially supplied by the Zamboanga del Norte Electric Cooperative (ZANECO), Inc. which is sourced out from the Maria Cristina Hydroelectric Plant in Iligan City, Lanao del Norte through its substations in Obay, Polanco and Nabilid, Roxas with a total of 15MVA power capacity.  The municipality also recognizes the potential of its Tulbong Falls in Barangay Meses whose heavy torrent can be converted into hydroelectric power.  If ever developed, it can provide enormous power even to its neighboring towns.

The Pali Spring in Barangay Palaranan is the sole source of our local water district.  For several years, it has undergone rehabilitation and expansion works through the LGU administration.  With minimal maintenance cost, it is generating revenues for the municipality which is in turn utilized for its expansion.


Health programs and activities are conducted mainly by 8 personnel in the Main Health Center located within the Municipal Compound.  It is complemented by 4 Barangay Health Extension Centers at Barangays Don Jose Aguirre, Libuton, Punta Blanca and Saluyong.  The rest of the hinterland areas are being served through conducts of Medical Outreach at times in coordination with the Provincial Government.

The municipality has also in its disposition a 14-bed capacity primary hospital whose piteous condition needs imperative attention as it caters not only to our residents needing medical care but also those of the nearby towns.  Due to financial and logistical incapacity, our then municipal leadership elevated this problem to the provincial administration sometimes in 1994.  Through the indulgence of Governor Isagani Amatong, the construction of the proposed Manukan District Hospital with an initial 50-bed capacity was then piloted in 1995.  However, he was defeated in the electoral poll but he picked up on the same project upon re-election in 1998.  It is hoped to be completed soon when all the basic facilities shall be in-placed and the DOH Permit approved.


The elementary curriculum is being offered by the two districts with 3 central (Manukan East, Manukan West, Linay), 18 elementary (San Antonio, Villaramos, Don Jose Aguirre, Loquilos, Patunan, Disakan, Upper Disakan, Dipane, Gupot, Libuton, Lingatongan, Lupasang, Mate, Meses, Palaranan, Saluyong, Serongan and Suisayan), and 4 primary schools (Pangandao, Patagan, Sitoy and Tiniguiban).  Too, we have 3 national high schools (Manukan National High School, Villaramos National High School and Don Bartolome Aripal Memorial National High School).  The San Estanislao Kostka College, being a private institutuion also offers both high school and collegiate courses.

Inspite of these numbers, prevalent is the problem on deficient classrooms and grade school teachers which results to the handling of multi-grade sections.  With the meager School Board Fund, the municipality cannot afford to subsidize the salaries of para-teachers to somewhat alleviate the loads of our mentors more particularly in the upland areas.

In existence are the Non-Formal Education Training Center which is non-functional due to lack of personnel, facilities and support funds.  On the other hand, the local DSWD provides pre-school or day care services through its 24 day care centers manned by the respective day care providers.  Additionally, we have 2 established pre-school institution, the San Estanislao Kostka Kindergarten School and the CAMACOP Preparatory School in its Poblacion area.


Despite the deficiency of the police-population requirements and logistics, peace and order within our area of jurisdiction is generally normal.  To maintain the peaceful atmosphere and ensure protection of lives and properties of our local folks, we tapped and mobilized the Civilian Volunteer Corps in all component-barangays.  Additionally, there exists a civic radio club who offers assistance to the Philippine National Police and the Bureau of Fire Protection incases of emergencies.